Updated: Jan 10
The findings derive from an extensive data collection undertaken by CLOCC in Banyuwangi in 2020 and 2021, to build the foundation for sustainable waste management planning on the regency level.
The study, undertaken in cooperation with CLOCC partner InSWA (Indonesia Solid Waste Association), found that 853 tonnes of waste is generated daily in Indonesia’s Banyuwangi regency. Over 78% or 666 tonne per day is leaking into the environment, through burial, burning, disposal on waste ground or into water bodies.
Indonesia aims to reduce ocean plastic leakage by 70% by 2025. This requires significant changes in solid waste management in smaller cities and rural areas, of which 72% of its plastic pollution originates from.
CLOCC’s study, which forms the data baseline for a sustainable waste management plan for Banyuwangi regency, concludes that through a participatory waste management planning approach, Banyuwangi has strong potential to significantly improve its waste management and reduce plastic waste leaking into the ocean.
48,500 tonnes of plastic per year
The baseline study found that the waste composition’s main fraction is food/kitchen waste (average 56% for domestic waste) with plastic representing 15% by weight. For non-domestic waste, food/kitchen waste is 28% with 15% plastic. This corresponds to 48,500 tonnes of plastic per year. Approximately 20,000 tons are collected for recycling or disposal, and the remining 28,500 tons are not managed and could leak into the environment.
To assess waste recovery, the research team analysed the formal and informal recycling industry. They identified 13 recycling businesses, 47 junk shops, 18 TPS3Rs and 16 waste banks. The results show varied rates of effective recovery, with waste banks utilising all the waste deposited at their sites. However TPS3Rs accept 26 tonnes/day of recyclable material, but of this, 88% is disposed of as residual waste. Approximately 243,000 tonnes of waste annually is not managed.
A total of 25.729 tpd of waste is handled by the formal recycling sector (TPS3R), 26.500 tpd by the informal sector and 133,760 tpd to final disposal, of which 20,3 tons is plastics.
Approximately 16,500 tonnes of plastic is estimated to be burnt without energy recovery. Recycling that amount of plastics would have saved more than 58,000 tonnes of CO2 equivalent emissions per year.
Coherent waste challenges
To supplement the findings, CLOCC has concluded three surveys. They consistently show coherent waste challenges such as a lack of operational infrastructure, and common informal disposal practices.
The stepladder waste survey was conducted in 76 villages (desas) and five subdistricts (kelurahan). The research found that 51% of the desas participating in the survey lack a formal waste system, 33% have a basic waste system, 9% have a feasible waste system and 7% a safe waste system.
The household level survey with 25 participating women found common waste challenges. It found that women play a positive role in managing waste on the household level, and maintain a high source separation rate. The survey found that most households segregate waste into two or three categories, or based on valuable and non-valuable waste. However, households in villages that lack a waste management system dump or burn their waste, in lack of better options.
The farmer’s waste survey aimed to understand waste management and its possibilities in the agriculture sector, as it encompasses 82% of economic activity in Banyuwangi.
Overall, the surveys and stakeholder meetings executed show challenges with the technical, financial, institutional, legal and social and cultural aspects.
The waste flow mapping was undertaken using the Waste Wise Cities Tool (WaCT) and the National Indonesia Standard on waste sampling. WaCT is a diagnostic tool developed by UN-Habitat enabling cities to standardise how they report on waste collection and management.
WaCT’s steps are 1:Preparation, 2: Household Generation and Composition, 3: Non-Household generation, 4: MSW Received by Recovery Facilities and Control Level of Recovery Facilities, Step 5: MSW Received by Disposal Facilities and Control Level of Disposal
In Step 2, domestic sampling, 80 samples were collected from 10 villages. In addition were 60 samples taken from locations in the South, East and West, to obtain a regency-wide understanding. In Step 3, Non-domestic sampling, 37 samples were collected and additionally 77 from across the regency.
Conclusions and recommendations
The data collection resulted in robust data that will serve the waste management planning process. It found that through analysing the challenges of the waste management system, Banyuwangi regency is in a strong position to improve its waste management.
90% of waste is considered to be recoverable either through recycling or composting. The recovery network of junk shops, waste banks, waste pickers, TPS3R and the recycling industries play a vital role in recovering resources, and must be further supported.
The report recommends that an integrated approach to overcoming the barriers and challenges for waste management is implemented. It requires progress on all elements of the ISWM framework, including physical and governance factors, to be sustainable.
Funding ISWM planning is essential to improve control over waste in the regency. Consideration should be given at an early stage in budget planning for waste related capital and operational expenditure. Financing waste may include elements of international funding, national budget support, as well as addressing waste management system fee structures to support the daily operational costs.
The participatory processes CLOCC uses has proven considerable momentum for change within the Banyuwangi regency’s community and institutions. The report recommends that the process is moved forwards, which can involve sharing the waste data baseline, to ensure residents, business and institutions understand the future waste challenges and the role they can play in defining and implementing its solutions.
CLOCC’s approach to the Banyuwangi waste management planning is based on Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM). The ISWM approach was developed to address common waste management challenges in developing countries and countries in transition. It emphasizes stakeholders, waste system elements and sustainability aspects.
CLOCC believes that through establishing a strong data foundation on waste management and generation in Banyuwangi, CLOCC and its partners can create a sustainable and inclusive waste management plan, which can contribute to long term plastic leakage reduction and better waste management.
Read the report here!